Depending on your holiday destination and what you are planning to do you will need different vaccinations. Not getting any vaccination can spoil your vacation since infectious diseases can make you very sick and even kill you.
The right vaccinations will protect you against travel-related infections and let you enjoy your holiday. Planning ahead is very important since some vaccinations need to be given well in advance to work properly. You should always get professional advice before you get you travel jabs because the vaccinations needed are different for each country.
To stay healthy during your visit to Africa you need to be up to date with all common childhood vaccines. This includes hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella and polio. The vaccinations recommended may differ depending on the African country that you are going to visit but vaccinations for hepatitis A, meningococcal meningitis, rabies and typhoid are always highly recommended. Maybe you are concerned about malaria. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for malaria but you should take anti-malaria prophylactics and read about how to avoid malaria. Everyone should get the recommended shots listed above, but you need to find out which ones are necessary for each country and your destination.
Travelers in Asia will also need to update their childhood vaccines and get boosters for diseases like tetanus, diphtheria and measles if they haven´t had those in a while. For malaria prevention you should take Mefloquine or something equivalent. Vaccinations for hepatitis A and polio are necessary. Depending on your plans and the locations that you will visit the following vaccines should be considered: hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, typhoid, meningococcal, rabies and cholera. It also depends on your current health condition, so you need to talk to a professional before you decide which vaccines you will get. Don´t forget to pay attention to the quality of drinking water and food!
In South America similar diseases as in Africa and Asia are common and therefore you will need to get almost the same vaccinations. Make sure that your vaccinations for childhood diseases are up to date. Otherwise you should get a booster shot if required. Serious infections you risk to get in South America are yellow fever, diphtheria, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tuberculosis, chagas disease, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, typhoid, meningococcal, rabies and cholera. To be on the safe side, check with a doctor to find out if there are other common diseases in the country that you will visit.